# Wahlund Effect and F-statistics

#### Instructions

- Select a set of allele frequencies (default: p=0.90 0.70 0.50
0.30 0.10)
- Select an inbreeding coefficient within populations (default:
f=0.0)
- The display is updated automatically updated after each
selection

#### Interpreting the results

Genotype frequencies within each population are calculated
according to the standard formulas:

`freq(AA)=p`^{2}(1-f) + pf

freq(Aa)=2p(1-p)(1-f)

freq(Aa)=(1-p)^{2}(1-f) + (1-p)f

The expected
genotype frequency across populations is given by

`freq(AA)= P`^{2}(1-f) + Pf

freq(Aa)= 2P_{}(1-P_{})

freq(aa)= (1-P_{})^{2}(1-f) + (1-P_{})f

where

`P=sum(p`_{i})/n .

Observed genotype frequencies across the sample of populations are
calculated from the average genotype frequency across populations.

`F`_{is} = f (from the listbox above)

F_{st} = Var(p)/P(1-P)

1-F_{it} = (1-F_{is})(1-F_{st})

where

`Var(p) = sum(p`_{i} - P)^{2}/n .

Remember that F_{it} is also equal to

`1 - (obs.
heterozygosity)/(2P(1-P))`

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