The basic approach to the analysis is either to use a linear regression of offspring phenotype on parental phenotype, which as we'll see estimates , or to use a nested analysis of variance. One of the most complete designs is a full-sib, half-sib design in which each male sires offspring from several dams but each dam mates with only one sire.
The offspring of a single dam are full-sibs (they are nested within dams). Differences among the offspring of dams indicates that there are differences in maternal ``genotype'' in the trait being measured.1
The offspring of different dams mated to a single sire are half-sibs. Differences among the offspring of sires indicates that thee are differences in paternal ``genotype'' in the trait being measured.2
As we'll see, this design has the advantage that it allows both additive and dominance components of the genetic variance to be estimated. It has the additional advantage that we don't have to assume that the distribution of environments in the offspring generation is the same as it was in the parental generation.